Supporting Documents

Nutritional Therapeutics and COVID-19

Some commonly used ingredients have therapeutic properties and can help reduce inflammation and boost the body’s immune system.

Turmeric (Curcumin)

A polyphenolic compound that interferes with viral absorption, entry and replication, turmeric is an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer therapeutic. Nano-curcumin preparations or formulations designed to enhance absorption are recommended. Due to the rare complication of hepatic injury (hepatitis), long-term treatment ( > 14 days) is not suggested. Curcumin has been reported to block H1 and H2 receptors and to limit mast cell degranulation in and is suggested in treatment for symptoms of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome.

Dosage for I-CARE early treatment protocol:

  • 500 mg twice a day (1000 mg/day)

Dosage for I-RECOVER Long COVID treatment protocol:

  • First line treatment: 500 mg twice a day (1000 mg/day)

Dosage for I-RECOVER Post-Vaccine Treatment protocol:

  • For MCAS (Mast Cell Activation Syndrome): 500 mg/day

Possible therapeutic effects in COVID-19:

  • Binds to receptor-binding domain of viral spike protein and ACE2 enzyme
  • Downregulates ACE and AT1 receptors and reduces Angiotensin 2 formation and action
  • Modulates cytokines and decreases interleukins
  • Increases macrophages and decreases neutrophil chemotaxis, increasing apoptosis
  • Modulates NK cells, dendritic cells

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Nigella sativa (Black Cumin Seed)

The active ingredient in this medicinal plant, also known as Kalonji or Kalojeere, is thymoquinone (phenolic compound). With immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, Nigella sativa can help prevent Inflammation and injury of the lungs during COVID-19 infection. It also protects the kidneys, liver and heart, reduces blood pressure and cholesterol, reduces the effects of seasonal allergies, helps with digestion and regulates blood sugar. Available as supplements or as pure oil or seeds.

Dosage for I-CARE prevention and early treatment:

  • 80 mg/kg per day or 400 to 500 mg of encapsulated oil twice a day with honey (see dosage below)

  • Pure oil and seeds: 3,300 mg = 1 teaspoon; 10,000 mg = 1 tablespoon

Dosage for I-RECOVER Long COVID treatment protocol:

  • 200-500 mg encapsulated oil twice daily as optional adjunctive therapies

Dosage for I-RECOVER Post-Vaccine Treatment protocol:

  • 200-500 mg encapsulated oil twice daily

Possible therapeutic effects in COVID-19:

  • COX and 5-lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic metabolism and inhibits leukocytes and eosinophils (anti-inflammatory and antioxidant)
  • Inhibits release of histamine from mast cells by decreasing calcium and protein kinase C and oxidative stress (anti-inflammatory)
  • A randomized placebo-controlled study demonstrated that the combination of honey and Nigella sativa hastened recovery, decreased viral shedding, and reduced mortality in patients with both moderate and severe COVID-19 infection
  • Nigella sativa is a zinc ionophore
  • Suggested for generalized neurologic symptoms/“brain fog”/fatigue/visual symptoms

Caution with:

  • It should be noted that thymohydroquinone decreases the absorption of cyclosporine and phenytoin. Patients taking these drugs should, therefore, avoid taking Nigella sativa
  • Two cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported in patients taking Nigella sativa who underwent general anesthesia (probable interaction with opiates)

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Honey is a strong antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulator that boosts immunity. It also works therapeutically against diabetes, and other diseases, reduces neuro deficits and can heal wounds and burns. Honey contains B vitamins. Garlic, cinnamon, and ginger enhance the effects of honey.

Dose for treatment:

  • 1 g/kg/day

Possible therapeutic effects in COVID-19:

  • Decreases inflammation by reducing prostaglandins, thromboxane B2, and increasing NO (nitric oxide) end products
  • Nitric oxide blocks RNA synthesis and viral accumulation
  • Immunomodulatory effects boost immunity by increasing B and T lymphocytes and stimulates phagocytosis
  • Regulates production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes and also inhibits production of pro-inflammatory cytokines

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