Authors: Olajide O, Iwuanyanwu VU, Adegbola OD, Al-Hindawi AA

PMID: 34709564 PMCID: PMC8551352 DOI: 10.1007/s12035-021-02593-6


In addition to respiratory complications produced by SARS‐CoV‐2, accumulating evidence suggests that some neurological symptoms are associated with the disease caused by this coronavirus. In this study, we investigated the effects of the SARS‐CoV‐2 spike protein S1 stimulation on neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia. Analyses of culture supernatants revealed an increase in the production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and iNOS/NO. S1 also increased protein levels of phospho-p65 and phospho-IκBα, as well as enhanced DNA binding and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. These effects of the protein were blocked in the presence of BAY11-