Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been the leading cause of death for over 20 years. The main causative factors are believed to be high cholesterol, obesity, smoking, diabetes, and a lack of physical activity. One of the most commonly used treatments is a combination of anticoagulant and antithrombotic therapy; however, it often causes unwanted side effects. The European Society of Cardiology, therefore, recommends a prophylactic strategy, including a varied diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants; all of which are sources of natural compounds with antiplatelet, anticoagulant, or antioxidant activities, such as phenolic compounds. One such plant with multidirectional health-promoting effects and a rich source of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds, is dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). The present mini-review presents the current state of knowledge concerning the effects of dandelion consumption on the cardiovascular system and CVDs based on various in vitro and in vivo trials; it discusses the value of dandelion as a food product, as well as extracts and pure compounds, such as chicoric acid, which can be obtained from the various plant organs. The paper also sheds new light on the mechanisms involved in this activity and describes the cardioprotective potential of dandelion products and preparations.