Autophagy blockade mechanistically links proton pump inhibitors to worsened diabetic nephropathy and aborts the renoprotection of metformin/enalapril.
Published On: January 15, 2021|
Authors: Mostafa DK, Khedr MM, Barakat MK, Abdellatif AA, Elsharkawy AM
PMID: 33275985 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118818
Aim: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used drugs recently linked to chronic kidney disease. However, the invloved mechanisms remained elusive. Since defective autophagy is identified as a new culprit in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), we aimed to trace the link of autophagy blockade by PPIs to the progression of DN with and without the standard therapy of metformin and enalapril.
Main methods: Male CD1 albino mice (20-25 g) were randomly assigned to normal control or diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) injection combined with high fat diet. DN mice were randomized to receive vehicle, lansoprazole (5 mg/kg), metformin (200 mg/kg), lansoprazole + metformin, metformin + enalapril (0.5 mg/kg) or the three drugs together, orally daily for four weeks. At the study end, albuminuria, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, renal functions and malondialdehyde were assessed. Renal tissues were examined microscopically, and autophagic changes were evaluated by immunohistochemical detection of LC3-II and p62.
Key findings: Consistent with autophagic blockade, lansoprazole increased both LC3II and p62 in the glomerular and tubular cells. This was associated with impaired creatinine clearance and renal functions, enhanced albuminuria, oxidative stress and augmented DN histopathological changes. Opposite effects on autophagy markers were observed by single or combined treatment of metformin with enalapril; which also ameliorated glycemic control and signs of DN. This improvement was mitigated by combination with lansoprazole.
Significance: Autophagy blockade by lansoprazole augmented diabetic nephropathy and opposed the reno-protective effects of metformin and enalapril. The use of PPIs in diabetes should be considered with great caution.