Authors: Ahmed A, Ghit A, Houjak A, Elkazzaz M

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.102923


Zinc is a trace metal ion that has a role in both physiological and pathological processes, making it one of the most common and necessary components involved in brain function. Besides, zinc is required for cell proliferation control in a variety of mechanisms, including hormonal regulation of cell division. Also, zinc serves as a biochemical signal to immune cells and transcription factors involved in the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, zinc has a variety of crucial roles in neurogenesis and also acts as a neuromodulator on a wide range of membrane receptors, ion channels, and transporters. Zinc is produced by neurons under several conditions to activate microglia. The link between zinc dysregulation and psychiatric disorder was that zinc acts as an inhibitory modulator at the N-methyl-D aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamate receptor. Ionophores are ion carrier molecules that reversibly bind and transport ions through biological membranes. Ionophores can be natural or synthetic products. Zinc ionophores such as quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), hinokitol, and proanthocyanidins have been shown to protect brain health, particularly in depression clinically significant depression and depressive symptoms in post-COVID-19 syndrome may have severe implications as it relates to life outcomes quality, herein according to previous research studies, we showed zinc deficiency as a possible risk factor for depression symptoms, which were commonly observed following severe infection of COVID-19.

Keywords: ionophore, zinc, cytokines, quercetin, EGCG, hinokitol, proanthocyanidins