Recurrent miscarriage (RM) and vasculoplacental disorders, such as preeclampsia (PE), affect women of childbearing age worldwide. Vascular endothelial dysfunction and immunological impairment are associated with both RM and PE. To date, there is no effective or optimal therapeutic approach for these conditions. Notably, aspirin use is only partially effective in the prevention of PE. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has demonstrated beneficial effects on disease flares, pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular impairment in systemic erythaematosus lupus (SLE) through its immunomodulatory, vasculoprotective and antithrombotic properties. Here, in the context of the underlying physiological dysregulation associated with PE and RM, the beneficial properties and potential therapeutic efficacy of HCQ are reviewed in anticipation of the results of current and future trials. Two related trials addressing RM in the absence of maternal autoimmune disease are ongoing. Other trials addressing pregnancy outcomes in the presence of maternal autoimmune disease are forthcoming. In this review, we hypothesise that the immunological and endothelial effects of HCQ may be beneficial in the context of PE and RM, regardless of the maternal autoimmune status.