Authors: Halma MT, Plothe C, Marik P, Lawrie T

PMID: 37317282 PMCID: PMC10222799 DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms11051308


In the wake of the COVID-19 crisis, a need has arisen to prevent and treat two related conditions, COVID-19 vaccine injury and long COVID-19, both of which can trace at least part of their aetiology to the spike protein, which can cause harm through several mechanisms. One significant mechanism of harm is vascular, and it is mediated by the spike protein, a common element of the COVID-19 illness, and it is related to receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. Given the significant number of people experiencing these two related conditions, it is imperative to develop treatment protocols, as well as to consider the diversity of people experiencing long COVID-19 and vaccine injury. This review summarizes the known treatment options for long COVID-19 and vaccine injury, their mechanisms, and their evidentiary basis.

Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine injury; autophagy; inflammation; long COVID; repurposed medication; spike protein; thrombosis.

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