COVID-19 Protocols

Medical Evidence

In October 2020 we added ivermectin to both of our COVID-19 protocols (MATH+ and I-MASK+), which we regard as a core medication in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19: see section Ivermectin in COVID-19.

Below you find scientific studies that provide the medical evidence in support of the individual medical therapies that make up our MATH+ Hospital Treatment Protocol for Covid-19 (and in parts also our I-MASK+ Protocol):


Corticosteroid therapy is one of the most effective interventions in COVID-19 and MATH+. From early March 2020, when the FLCCC team of physicians first came together to study and create treatment protocols for fighting the novel disease, the team, guided by Dr. G. Umberto Meduri’s expertise in corticosteroid use, placed methylprednisolone at the head — as the “M” — in its MATH+ hospital treatment formula. As a result, the two hospitals using the MATH+ formula had mortality rates of no higher than 6%, when most hospitals lost as many as 80% of their seriously ill COVID patients. This was months before the landmark RECOVERY trial convinced world authorities to allow and advocate for the use of steroids in treating the inflammatory stage of the disease. Publications listed below range from large scale observational studies demonstrating large impacts on mortality in the prior pandemics of SARS and H1N1, through the landmark RECOVERY trial done in the United Kingdom against COVID-19, to numerous and increasing COVID-19 retrospective cohort studies published from Italy, China, Spain, and the United States. In addition, a scientific review of the evidence supporting methylprednisolone in COVID-19 authored by FLCCC Alliance member Dr. G. Umberto Meduri can be found here.

June 1, 2021 | NEJM Journal Watch
Is Methylprednisolone Better than Dexamethasone for Severe COVID-19?
Daniel D. Dressler, MD, MSc, MHM, FACP

October 7, 2020 | Springer
The ten reasons why corticosteroid therapy reduces mortality in severe COVID-19
Yaseen M. Arabi, George P. Chrousos & G. Umberto Meduri

September 22, 2020 | USA (BMJ Open Respiratory Research)
SARS-CoV-2 organising pneumonia: ‘Has there been a widespread failure to identify and treat this prevalent condition in COVID-19?’
Pierre Kory (FLCCC Alliance) and Jeffrey P. Kanne

September 12 | Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Prolonged Low-Dose Methylprednisolone in Patients With Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia
Francesco Salton, Paola Confalonieri, G. Umberto Meduri et al.

September 2, 2020 | USA
Timing is crucial and hydrocortisone should be started within the first 12 hours after shock onset
Cohort study: “Evaluation of the Initiation Timing of Hydrocortisone in Adult Patients With Septic Shock”

September 2, 2020 | worldwide
Effect of Hydrocortisone on Mortality and Organ Support in Patients With Severe COVID-19
The REMAP-CAP COVID-19 Corticosteroid Domain Randomized Clinical Trial

September 2, 2020 | France
Effect of hydrocortisone on 21-day mortality or respiratory support among critically ill patients with COVID-19
A Randomized Clinical Trial

September 2, 2020 | Brazil
Effect of dexamethasone on days alive and ventilator-free in patients with moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and COVID-19
The CoDEX Randomized Clinical Trial

June 25, 2020 | Italy/USA/UK
Treatment with Methylprednisolone leads to significant mortality reduction in COVID-19
“Prolonged low-dose methylprednisolone in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia” (Clinical Trial)

June 18, 2020 | Spain
Methylprednisolone decreases risk of ICU, NIV, or death in Covid-19
“GLUCOCOVID: A controlled trial of methylprednisolone in adults hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia” (Clinical Trial)

May 19, 2020 | USA
Early CST (corticosteroid treatment) reduces mortality, need for ICU beds, ventilators in COVID-19
“Early short course corticosteroids in hospitalized patients with COVID-19” (Multi-center quasi-experimental study)

May 15, 2020 | USA
Methylprednisolone counteracts SARS-CoV-2 gene activation pattern
“COVID-19: disease pathways and gene expression changes predict methylprednisolone can improve outcome in severe cases” (Clinical Study)

May 13, 2020 | France
CST reduces the risk of intubation in COVID-19 patients
“Beneficial effect of corticosteroids in severe COVID-19 pneumonia: A propensity score matching analysis” (Case-control Study)

April 28, 2020 | Spain/Italy et al.
CST reduced mortality during SARS and H1N1 pandemics
“Rationale for Prolonged Corticosteroid Treatment in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Coronavirus Disease 2019”

April 28, 2020 | China
Early CST reduces need for mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital LOS, and oxygen support
“A retrospective cohort study of methylprednisolone therapy in severe patients with COVID-19 pneumonia”

April 22, 2020 | USA/Greece
The role of Glucocorticoid receptors in critical illness
“General Adaptation in Critical Illness: Glucocorticoid Receptor-alpha Master Regulator of Homeostatic Corrections”

April 20, 2020 | USA
Timed & titrated use of steroid in COVID-19?
Josh Farkas of PulmCrit reviews need for steroids in COVID-19

April 2020 | Critical Care Explorations
Rationale for Prolonged Corticosteroid Treatment in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Coronavirus Disease 2019
Jesús Villar, Marco Confalonieri, Stephen M. Pastores, G. Umberto Meduri

March 13, 2020 | China
CST in COVID ARDS associated with lower mortality
“Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China” (Cohort Study)

Numerous studies of the profound physiologic and clinical impacts of intravenous ascorbic acid (AA) in critical illness states have been published over the past two decades. The publications below range from multiple studies in septic shock demonstrating large outcome improvements, to CITRIS-ALI, the NIH funded multi-center randomized controlled trial in ARDS which found that high dose intravenous AA led to a statistically significant reduction in mortality. Timeliness of administration, i.e. the need for early infusion at the onset of critical illness, is a variable that has been poorly accounted for in many trials of intravenous AA and is well-illustrated in multiple studies below.

June 19, 2020 | USA/Italy/UK
Quercetin & Vitamin C: A synergistic therapy for prevention and treatment of COVID-19
“Quercetin and Vitamin C: An experimental, synergistic therapy for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 related disease (COVID-19)”

April, 2020 | USA
Impact of intravenous ascorbic acid in critical illness, database of all published trials
“Clinical trials of IV Ascorbic Acid, Thiamine RX, or HAT therapy in ICU patients with septic shock or ARDS” (spreadsheet)

March 30, 2020 | USA
Importance of the timeliness of IV ascorbic acid initiation and relation to survival in shock patients
“Relationship between delays in iHAT administration and ICU mortality in shock patients” (graph)

March 26, 2020 | China
High dose intravenous ascorbic acid used successfully in Covid-19
“Can early and high intravenous dose of vitamin C prevent and treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?” (Article on ScienceDirect)

March 17, 2020 | USA
Faster resolution of shock with early HAT treatment in sepsis
“The ORANGES trial – Outcomes of metabolic resuscitation using ascorbic acid, thiamine, and glucocorticoids in the early treatment of sepsis”

January 9, 2020 | USA
HAT therapy reduces mortality in septic children
“Hydrocortisone–ascorbic acid–thiamine use associated with lower mortality in pediatric septic shock”

December 23, 2019 | USA
The anti-viral properties of Vitamin C
Editorial on Taylor & Francis Online by Ruben M. L. Colunga Biancatelli, Max Berrill and Paul E. Marik (FLCCC)

October 1, 2019 | USA
Intravenous ascorbic acid reduces mortality in ARDS
The CITRIS-ALI Randomized Clinical Trial – “Effect of Vitamin C Infusion on Organ Failure and Biomarkers of Inflammation and Vascular Injury in Patients With Sepsis and Severe Acute Respiratory Failure”

July 21, 2017 | USA
Corticosteroid and ascorbic acid act synergistically in protecting the pulmonary endothelial barrier
“Hydrocortisone and Ascorbic Acid Synergistically Prevent and Repair Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pulmonary Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction” (Study)

June, 2017 | USA
HAT therapy for treatment of severe sepsis & septic shock
A retrospective before-after study

Thiamine is another cornerstone in the concept of “metabolic resuscitation,” an approach based on the concept that once severe or critical illness develops, multiple deficiencies in key vitamins and hormones are created via “consumption” induced via the body’s attempts to fight off the insult or invader. Immediate and aggressive repletion of such substances are critical to strengthening the immune system’s ability to maintain balance and prevent the onset-of-multi-organ failure. The studies below detail the critical functions of thiamine, the deleterious consequences and high incidence of thiamine deficiency, and also include several key studies demonstrating improvements in survival with aggressive intravenous thiamine repletion.

December 6, 2019 | USA
Thiamine in septic shock: A targeted therapy
Journal of Thoracic Disease

November, 2018 | USA
IV Thiamine reduces mortality in septic shock
“Effect of Thiamine administration on lactate clearance and mortality in patients with septic shock” (Critical Care Magazine – Nov 2018 – Vol. 46 – Issue 11)

February, 2016 | USA
Thiamine deficiency common in sepsis, IV repletion improves survival
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Thiamine as a metabolic resuscitator in septic shock – A pilot study (Critical Care Magazine – Feb 2016 – Vol. 44 – Issue 2)

One of the earliest and most profound insights into the pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease was that of it’s extreme “hypercoagulability,” found the most severely ill patients suffering severe inflammation. The studies below detail both the high incidences and types of clotting complications seen in critically ill COVID-19 patients, along with studies demonstrating associations between anti-coagulant treatment and improvements in survival.

April 9, 2020 | China
High rates of VTE in severe Covid-19
“Prevalence of venous thromboembolism in patients with severe novel coronavirus pneumonia”

May 6, 2020 | USA
Mt. Sinai Hospital: Systemic anticoagulation improved survival
“Association of treatment dose anticoagulation with in-hospital survival among hospitalized patients with COVID-19”

May 4, 2020 | France
VTE incidence in Covid-19 ARDS is 5x that of non-Covid ARDS
“High risk of thrombosis in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multicenter prospective cohort study”

April 20, 2020 | China
Chinese experts recommend full anti-coagulation in Covid-19
“Chinese expert consensus on diagnosis and treatment of coagulation dysfunction in COVID-19”

May 5, 2020 | The Netherlands
Daily VTE incidence increases rapidly over time in hospital, associated with death
“Incidence of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients with COVID‐19”

March 27, 2020 | China
Anticoagulation is associated with decreased mortality in Covid-19
“Anticoagulant treatment is associated with decreased mortality in severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients with coagulopathy”

The studies below detail both the biologic plausibility supporting each adjunctive medicine, and the emerging clinical evidence base, demonstrating their impacts on survival in multiple critical illness states, including the emerging evidence for their use in COVID-19.

June 24, 2020 | China
Statin use is associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality
“In-hospital use of statins is associated with a reduced risk of mortality among individuals with COVID-19” (Retrospective Study)

June 10, 2020 | Singapore
Vitamin-Magnesium combo may reduce severity of COVID-19 in seniors
A cohort study to evaluate the effect of combination Vitamin D, Magnesium and Vitamin B12 (DMB) on progression to severe outcome in older COVID-19 patients

May 22, 2020 | USA
Famotidine associated with improved clinical outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients
“Famotidine Use is Associated with Improved Clinical Outcomes in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Propensity Score Matched Retrospective Cohort Study”

May 15, 2020 | USA/Spain
Therapeutic algorithm for use of Melatonin in patients with COVID-19
Review of the evidence for a role of Melatonin as a COVID-19 treatment

April 28, 2020 | USA
Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent in severe COVID-19
Retrospective review

April, 2020 | USA
The role of Vitamin D in suppressing cytokine storm and mortality in COVID-19
A retrospective review of the relationship between Vitamin D and Covid-19 infection and mortality

April 2, 2020 | USA/Hungary
Evidence that Vitamin D could reduce risk of COVID-19 infections and deaths
Review on the role of Vitamin D in reducing the risk of respiratory tract infections

December 15, 2019 | USA/Italy/UK
Melatonin for the treatment of sepsis: the scientific rationale
Review on the evidence for the role of Melatonin in sepsis, its pharmacokinetic profile and the virtual absence of side effects

May 4, 2017 | Germany
Persistent low serum Zinc associated with recurrent sepsis in critically ill
A pilot study

March 24, 2016 | USA/Thailand
Hypomagnesemia and mortality in patients admitted to intensive care unit
A systematic review and meta-analysis

November 4, 2010 | Netherlands
Zinc inhibits Coronavirus activity in vitro and blocks viral replication
“Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture”

June, 2006 | Saudi Arabia
Aggressive Magnesium supplementation associated with improved survival
“Magnesium supplementation and the potential association with mortality rates among critically ill non-cardiac patients”

April, 2003 | Belgium
Development of ionized hypomagnesemia is associated with higher mortality rates
Prospective observational study

Further information about the MATH+ protocol and the medicines used can be found in our peer-reviewed paper Clinical and Scientific Rationale for the MATH+ Hospital Treatment Protocol for COVID-19 (published in the Journal of Intensive Care Medicine in December 2020).

For more information on ivermectin please read our Review of the Emerging Evidence Supporting the Use of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19 – also see our Ivermectin in COVID-19 section.

For optional medicines and an overview of the developments in prevention and treatment of COVID-19, please see Optional Medicines.